Nasal Vaccine Protects Against Smallpox, HIV
Smallpox, HIV Vaccine
Scientists from Michigan Nanotechnology Institute for Medicine reported two new studies showing effectiveness and safety of nanoemulsion nasal vaccine in preventing from smallpox and HIV.
Nanoemulsion vaccine is an emulsive mixture of soybean oil, alcohol, water, detergents. For each disease vaccine the mixture is being combined with a disease-causing microbe to push body's immune system up. The vaccine is easy to apply compared to injecting vaccines and easy to penetrate from nose membranes.
"The two studies show the nanoemulsion platform is capable of developing vaccines from very diverse materials. We used whole virus in the smallpox vaccine. In the HIV vaccine, we used a single protein. We were able to promote an immune response using either source," says James Baker from UM.
UM scientists developed killed-vaccinia virus nanoemulsion vaccine and applied to mice. The vaccine significantly improved mucosal and antibody immunity, Th1 cellular immunity. After, the mice were exposed to live-vaccinia virus and showed 100% survival rate. Those without nanoemulsion vaccination did not survive.
"We found that the nanoemulsion vaccine could inactivate and kill the virus and then subsequently induce immunity to the virus that includes cellular immunity, antibody immunity and mucosal immunity," Baker says.
Current smallpox vaccine is based on live-vaccinia virus and it is risky to use, because if a person receiving vaccine has weak immune system or skin condition may get infection instead of protection.
Current HIV vaccines failed to protect from the diseases and UM scientists suggest brand new approach for vaccine development. Researchers see necessity in improving genital mucosal immunity the future of HIV vaccine development. Nanoemulsion vaccine worked good in improving it.
The vaccine also neutralized antibody of HIV Virus. The new vaccine is based on gp120 protein and shows promise in developing a totally new approach to vaccination technique.