FDA Requires Safety Measures For Oral Sodium Phosphate Products
Today, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration announced that it will add a Boxed Warning to the prescription oral sodium phosphate products Visicol and OsmoPrep to warn consumers about the risk of acute phosphate nephropathy (a type of acute kidney injury). Patients routinely take OSP products to cleanse the bowel before a colonoscopy (colon examination) and other medical procedures.
The FDA has also directed the manufacturer of these products to develop a risk evaluation and mitigation strategy (REMS), distribute a Medication Guide to alert patients to the risk of acute kidney injury associated with the use of these products, and to conduct a postmarketing clinical trial to further assess the risk of acute kidney injury with the use of these products.
The agency is equally concerned about the risks associated with the use of OSP products that are available over-the-counter (OTC), for example, Fleet Phospho-soda, when used at higher doses for bowel cleansing. The available data do not show a risk of acute kidney injury when these OTC products are used at the lower doses for laxative use. However, when used for bowel cleansing, these products have the same risks as prescription OSP products. FDA plans to amend the labeling conditions for OTC OSP products to address this concern with bowel cleansing use. In light of the continued receipt of reports of acute phosphate nephropathy, FDA is recommending that consumers not use over-the-counter OSPs for bowel cleansing.
“Though rare, these are serious adverse events associated with the use of oral sodium phosphates -- both prescription and over-the-counter products,” said Janet Woodcock, M.D., director, FDA’s Center for Drug Evaluation and Research. “In some cases, these serious adverse events occurred in patients with no pre-existing health factors that would have put them at risk for developing kidney injury. We cannot rule out, however, that some of these patients were dehydrated prior to ingestion of OSP products or they did not drink sufficient fluids after ingesting OSP products.”
In 2006, the FDA issued a Science Paper and a Healthcare Professional sheet describing the risks associated with the use of OSP products for bowel cleansing. Since then, as part of the Agency’s postmarketing surveillance, the FDA has received reports of 20 unique cases of kidney injury associated with the use of OsmoPrep. Of the reported cases, three were biopsy-proven cases of acute phosphate nephropathy. The onset of kidney injury in these cases varied, occurring in some within several hours of use of these products and in other cases up to 21 days after use.
OSP products should not be used by children under 18 years of age or in combination with other laxative products containing sodium phosphate. FDA is recommending that OSP prescription products be used with caution for bowel cleansing by the following at risk groups:
* people over 55 years of age,
* people who suffer from dehydration, kidney disease, acute colitis, or delayed bowel emptying, and
* people taking certain medicines that affect kidney function, such as diuretics (fluid pills), angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (medications that lower blood pressure) angiotensin receptor blockers, (used to treat high blood pressure, heart or kidney failure) and possibly nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (similar to ibuprofen and other arthritis medications).
Health care professionals and consumers may report serious adverse events (side effects) or product quality problems with the use of these products to the FDA's MedWatch Adverse Event Reporting program either online, by regular mail, fax or phone.