Hi-Maize Resistant Starch May Increase Satiety, Reduce Hunger
Resistant starch is a type of carbohydrate which resists complete digestion and passes through to the large intestine as a dietary fiber. A study from the University of Toronto has found that the Hi-Maize brand of whole grain corn flour and resistant starch may help increase satiety and lead to reduced food intake.
G. Harvey Anderson PhD and his team published their results in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. The two-part study used a group of 16 men aged 20-30 years old who consumed one of five soups containing either 50 grams of added starch ingredients or one of two controls. Glycemic response (the release of glucose into the bloodstream) was measured and the subjects completed a subjective satiety questionnaire. The researchers also measured the participants’ food intake after consuming the soups.
The researchers found that at 30 minutes after consuming the soup there was no effect on satiety or food intake. However at two hours after consumption, the soups with the highest levels of resistance starch, those using Hi-maize whole grain corn flour, reduced food intake by 15%, or about 244 calories. The Hi-maize resistant starch product and uncooked cornstarch soups reduced food intake by 7%, or about 113-116 calories.
“We found that estimates of the resistant starch content predicted the effect on blood glucose concentrations and subsequent food intake, while the dietary fiber content of these particular ingredients did not”, said Anderson.
Terry Finocchiaro PhD, director of nutrition research and development at National Starch, the maker of the Hi-maize products, was a contributing author of the study.
As a fiber, resistant starch can help contribute to satiety by taking longer to breakdown in the stomach giving a longer sensation of fullness. This may help control appetite, thus eating fewer calories over the course of a day. In animal models, the resistant starch was found to increase satiety hormones such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and Peptide YY (PYY).
A lack of fiber intake is a common problem in the typical American diet. While health experts recommend a minimum of 25 grams of fiber per day for most Adults, the average American consumes between 11 and 15 grams.
Resistant starch can be found naturally in lentils, some cereals, cold cooked potato, rice and pasta. Hi-maize flour products were developed and grown in Australia and in the US under contract by National Starch. The flour can be purchased and used in a variety of recipes or in food manufacturing.