Probiotics: Uses to Treat Intestinal, Immune, and Other disorders
Important factors that may contribute to both etiology and treatment and are increasingly being explored as targets for alternative treatment development. Diet and nutrition are important factors of disease. Many dietary compounds are transformed by the microbiome that can change the etiology of illness. Thus, the use of targeted probiotics has shown promise in the treatment of illnesses in humans.
Probiotics are live microorganisms that when administered in adequate amounts can confer a health benefit. This is the definition used by ISAPP (International Scientific Association for Probiotics and Prebiotics) when discussing the modern relevance of Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization (FAO/WHO) of these two groups first put forth in 2001. Probiotics comprise many different types of microbes. It is important to remember they are described by their genus, species, and strain. As an example, a commonly utilized probiotic, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG; Lactobacillus is the genus, rhamnosus is the species and GG is the strain designation. All three components are necessary to identify a probiotic. In addition, the full name allows readers to link a specific strain with studies describing health benefits and safety assessments.
Moreover, health benefits shown for one strain may not be established for another strain even if they are the same species. Identifying and establishing the precise mechanisms responsible for any given health benefit remain active areas of research. Regulatory categories of some newer products containing probiotics are unclear. The quality of probiotics products, including the reliability and accuracy of product labeling, can vary considerably. Currently, there is no global harmonization of regulatory frameworks dictating manufacturing and claim substantiation requirements for probiotics.
Consumers and manufacturers would benefit greatly from efforts to verify product quality through a third party. In the US, US Pharmacopeia has attempted this by assembling a panel of probiotic experts to provide advice and recommendations, enumeration and standards for contaminating microbes as applicable to probiotic dietary supplements. Microbes most commonly used as probiotics include species from the genera (plural of genus) are Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, and Saccharomyces. Other genera also used in probiotics include Bacillus, Streptococcus and Escherichia. A common side effect of taking antibiotics is diarrhea that can delay discharge from a hospital or cause a visit to the emergency room due to dehydration. Of more concern is that the disruption of normal microbiota can lead to opportunistic pathogens like C. difficile. Several studies have been done showing probiotics taken with antibiotics reduce the incidents of C. difficile.
Unfortunately for consumers, the probiotic marketplace can be confusing. A probiotic label should include3 genus, species and strain designation for all strains in the products. These labels should also include information about the potency of the product. Like what is the difference between probiotics and prebiotics? Well, prebiotics is not alive but are food for the good bacteria already found in your bowel (intestines). Probiotics are live microorganisms beneficial to your health. Other uses for probiotics currently being studied include their role in reducing expressions of brain function and usefulness in possibly reducing diseases associated with faulty immune programming as seen in autoimmune diseases (Sanders et al, 2018).
Use of probiotics is linked to a reduced need for antibiotic treatment in infants and children. This study found when the results from 12 studies pooled together, children and infants were 29% less likely to have been prescribed antibiotic if they received probiotics as a daily health supplement. When the analysis was repeated using only the highest quality studies the number jumps to 53%. The findings are intriguing and given the results, researchers feel this could potentially be a way to reduce the use of antibiotics. CDC has said there are approximately two million cases of antibiotic-resistant infections each year in the US resulting in 23,000 deaths.
The study showed evidence that consuming probiotics reduces the incidence, duration, and severity of certain types of common respiratory and gastrointestinal infections. More study is needed to see if sustained probiotic use is connected to an overall reduction in antibiotic prescriptions. If this proves correct, this study could have a huge impact on the use of probiotics in general medicine and consumers. While the exact mechanism of how they work is under study, there has been a noted pathogen inhibition and immune regulation. Most human immune systemic is found in the gastrointestinal tract. Ingesting healthy bacteria may competitively exclude bacterial pathogens linked to gut infections and may prime the immune system to fight others. Probiotics used in the reviewed studies were strains of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium (King et al, 2018).
Probiotics in treating isldhood gastrointestinal (GI) diseases is the topic of this study. GI are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in children in developing countries. Diarrheal diseases are one of the top five causes of death in children younger than five years. Human gut (intestinal) microbiota is emerging as a major determinant of intestinal and non-intestinal disease. It is home to a diverse collection of microbes with the disruption of which is associated with GI disease.
There are geographic variations noted that likely influence the risk of contracting certain diseases in that geographic area. It was found that there was a relation between disruption of gut microbiota and the risk of disease development. Symptom severity suggests that the use of certain probiotics strains may prevent or reduce the progression of damage caused by some GI illness. Clinical practice guidelines are important tools for translating the evidence available into clinical best practice. Well defined clinical indications for the use of probiotics have been established and more are emerging.
In addition, guidelines that are developed in one country may not apply in other countries. As seen in other studies, the burden of intestinal diseases differs across geographic regions particularly between countries in the Asia-Pacific region. Despite the largely socioeconomic disparities that exist between countries recommendations have been agreed to by all participants. Another issue includes the availability of specific probiotics, standardization of a regulatory framework for probiotics and the use of these agents in human m3edicine. This study found that the use of probiotics given for antibiotic-associated diarrhea should be considered on a case-by-case basis (Cameron et al, 2017).
Elimination of periodontal pathogens is the main aim of periodontal therapy. Scaling root planning is the gold standard. In the management of periodontal disease in current centuries has progressed an antibiotic/antimicrobial exemplary of illness or infection controlling? A phase of present moves from hypothesis regarding management commencing particular bacterial extinction into changing bacterial ecosystem by good ones. But due to the ever-increasing number of antibiotic-resistant organisms, this study looks at the effect on periodontal disorders.
The word probiotic means for life and thus presently applied while mentioning microbes related by means of helpful things for human beings and creatures. The use of bacteria to support well-being is very olden and could equally be outlined to standard ancient works whenever edibles fermented using microbes stood as a beneficial instrument. Probiotics have several constructive properties in generating improved oral health. It shows direct influence and indirect influence. It profits by adhering oral bacteria to proteins and biofilm.
Probiotics can help to stop in addition cure health disorders through numerous tools. It forms a network agreeably using disease-producing organism. Favorable microorganisms openly participate by means of illness increasing microscopic organisms for nourishment. Intermingles, in addition, reinforce the protection arrangement which aids in avoiding ailment. With firm developing knowledge and addition of biophysics with molecular biology exclusive probiotics positions enormous chance to cure diseases in a normal and less-invasive manner (Shetty et al, 2017).
Cameron, D. et al. (2017). Probiotics for gastrointestinal disorders: Proposed recommendations for children of the Asia-Pacific region. World Journal of Gastroenterology,23(45). Doi:10.3748/wjg.v23.i45.7952
King, S. et al. (2018). Probiotics may reduce antibiotic prescriptions. European Journal of Public Health. International Scientific Association for Probiotics and Prebiotics. Georgetown University Medical Center. https://doi.org/10.1093/eurpub/cky185
Sanders, M.E. et al. (2018). Probiotics for human use. Nurtition Bulletin. International Scientific Association for Probiotics and Prebiotics. Doi:10.1111/nbu.12334
Shetty, A. et al. (2017). Probiotic significance in periodotics-a short review. International Journal of Dentistry Research,2(2). http://www.dentristyscience.com