Apple Cider Vinegar: 1 or 2 tablespoons a day and lose weight?
Fermented foods and beverages were among the first processed foods consumed by humans. Improved shelf life, safety and properties of fermented foods added to their value. Investigators have found strong associations between the consumption of fermented foods and diseases. In humans, further understanding is needed for the potential benefit of apple cider vinegar and weight loss.
This study took a look at whether apple cider vinegar (ACV) could provide beneficial results with assisting the management of body weight and serum metabolic profiles in overweight or obese individuals. This study administered 30 cc of ACV per day and found that it created significantly reduced body weight, BMI, hip-circumference, visceral adiposity index, and appetite score. In addition, plasma triglycerides and total cholesterol levels were decreased and HDL (good lipids) was increased in the ACV group. The patients who were given the ACV used 15cc on a salad at lunch and 15cc on a salad at supper. Weight checks are done at six and twelve-week intervals showed a significant reduction in BMI and body fat in this ACV group (Khezri et al, 2018).
With the increase of resistance of pathogens from antibiotics, the World Health Organization (WHO) predicts that infections from antibiotic-resistant pathogens will pose a major patient care management issue. Sepsis can easily lead to systemic inflammation and organ failure. Substances currently being used against gram-negative infections are becoming increasingly ineffective. Our ancestors didn’t have antibiotics but research is done in the writings of the pharaohs and Hippocrates both mention what was the treatment of choice for wounds. In the Holy Bible, there are several mentions of treating wounds with honey and apple cider vinegar. Babylonians would even make kinds of vinegar to drink in addition to using them in healing. ACV has been hailed as a supplement for weight loss, hyperlipidemia, hypocholesterolemia, nutritional support and lowering of blood pressure. This study looked at three infections; E. coli, S. aureus, and C. Albicans to test anti-microbial effects of ACV if any. Microbes were significantly impaired following ACV addition which damaged cell integrity and nuclear material. This study did say that while ACV had such good outcomes, the studies were done on mice and rats. They hope that this research will encourage others to try it on human subjects (Yanik, Serafin & Shah, 2018).
Acetic acid (found in vinegar) is reported to have some beneficial effects on metabolism. Acetic acid treatment increased the production of AMPKα which then increased the expression of transcription activity. This, in turn, led to the expression of lipid oxidation genes. The prevention and improvement of obesity are important issues in modern society. Vinegar is not only consumed as a seasoning agent throughout the world but has also been used as folk medicine since ancient times. The liver is a vital organ that regulates lipid metabolism. It remains unclear how acetic acid stimulates liver cells to affect lipid metabolism. In animals, the liver is the primary organ responsible for modulating lipid metabolism and homeostasis through responses to nutrient signals. The previous study has shown acetic acid activates AMPKα and that in turn up-regulates enzymes in the liver to reduce fat accumulation. This activation also helps to inhibit cholesterol formation. The researchers concluded that acetic acid significantly increases the breakdown of lipids and increases lipid oxidation in the liver cells thus helps to reduce fat in the liver (Li et al, 2018).
Diabetes Mellitus is a well known metabolic disorder which is characterized by elevated blood glucose levels. It can lead to many complications like cardiovascular disease, chronic kidney failure, issues with vision and resistance to insulin. There is also a strong relationship between oral health and diabetes. This relationship can be seen in a flourishing of thrush, gingivitis or periodontitis. In this report, the investigator tried using ACV as an alternative antifungal drug to treat the infection. After using the ACV for one week the patient was found to have a 94% reduction of intraoral Candida. Kinds of vinegar have been used as a natural acidic condiment for years. Consumption of ACV can help to reduce blood glucose as well as slowing stomach emptying time that can help with losing weight. The suggested dose is 30cc twice daily for eight weeks. ACV has a potent antimicrobial and antifungal effect that reduced the candidal infection by 94%. Acting as an antioxidant regulating blood sugar and blood lipid levels it is a non-toxic and low-cost remedy that can lead to significant and useful results (Hassan, 2018).
Diabetes Mellitus (DM) has been considered globally as a major public health problem linked with changing lifestyle, reduced physical activity and obesity. DM occurs due to endocrine disorders that impair insulin production, hepatic (liver) glucose overproduction and insulin resistance. Food additives have become more popular in recent years for treating the diseases even without showing evidence of medical benefits. Natural products have fewer side effects as compared to medical therapies. Obese individuals are more apt to try alternative products or dietary supplements to aid in weight reduction. Apple cider vinegar is produced by fermentation of apples in the form of an acidic solution. ACV has beneficial effects in many issues in the body. The main mechanism is acetic acid and it is this ingredient that in turn affects blood glucose metabolism. Due to this effect, the study was done to show the impact on obesity can come from the use of ACV. Their results showed when compared to the control group that the addition of ACV helps produce a statistically significant with the decrease of HbA1C (blood test done to check how well the current treatment is controlling diabetes) and fasting blood sugar, hypercholesterolemia, and hypotriglyceridemia effects as well. This study concluded ACV had positive effects on controlling diabetes and decreasing the hip/waist ratio after three months of use of ACV, the suggested dosage is 15cc ACV with 5% acetic acid mixed in 200cc of water during the evening meal (Kausar et al, 2019).
While this study was started in Canada it provides good evidence of being applicable in America as well. Internet health scams (IHS) represent a significant and growing element of cybercrime. Nostrum sales-products are sold based on exaggerated claims or falsehood and the use of mass media to facilitate these scams. This is where this writer came across the article that stated apple cider vinegar was helpful in weight loss. And while this article (Garrett et al, 2018) showed 1% of people exposed to the false claims actually lose money to these claims when you look at possibly millions of people who have been hoodwinked, 1% is a considerable number. This study gives good advice about how to stay vigilant over false claims. One big expression used by them is ‘doctors don’t want you to know this’. And that is how I was exposed to the potential of false claims. Then I started to research these claims and was surprised to find research has been done by reputable sources that have proved apple cider vinegar does, in fact, help lose weight, decrease cholesterol and can be used as antiseptic for simple open wounds. That last use of ACV has been in use as folk medicine since the time of the pharaohs and Babylonians (Garrett et al, 2018)
Garrett, B. et al. (2018). Internet health scams-developing taxonomy and risk-of-deception assessment tool. Health and Social Care, 27(1).
Hassan, S.M. (2018). The effect of apple cider vinegar as antifungal in type II diabetic patient with intraoral candidosis. International Journal of Dentistry and Oral Health, 4(5).
Kausar, S. et al. (2019). Effect of Apple Cider Vinegar in Type 2 Diabetic Patients with Poor Glycemic Control: A Randomized Placebo Controlled Design. International Journal of Medical Research & Health Sciences, 2019, 8(2): 149-159
Khezri, S. et al. (2018). Beneficial effects of apple cider vinegar on weight management, visceral adiposity index and lipid profile in overweight or obese subjects receiving restricted calorie diet: A randomized clinical trial. Journal of Functional Foods, volume 43.
Li, L. et al. (2018). Acetic acid influences BRL-3A cell lipid metabolism via AMPK signaling pathway. Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry, 45(5).
Makwana, M & Hati, S. (2019). 1-fermented beverages and their health benefits. Science of Beverages, volume 5.
Yagnik, D., Serafin, V. & Shah, A.J. (2018). Antimicrobial activity of apple cider vinegar against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida Albicans: Down regulating cytokine and microbial protein expression. Scientific Reports, 8(1732).