6 plant derivatives that kill the yellow fever virus
Yellow fever is contracted via a type of flavivirus carried and transmitted by the Aedes or Haemagogus mosquitoes. Currently, there are no antiviral approved therapies for the treatment of human disease caused by flaviviruses. However, there are studies showing that certain plant derivatives that kill the yellow fever virus are not only available, but are also effective.
A little note about the Yellow Fever Virus
The flavivirus genus is separated into three major subdivisions: mosquito-borne viruses, tick-borne viruses, and flaviviruses with no known arthropod vector. The mosquito-borne group contains many well-known viruses that are important human pathogens. Yellow fever is the archetypal flavivirus with a transmission cycle that involves mosquito vectors.
Currently, there is no known 100% effective treatment against yellow fever, and also the yellow fever vaccine has been in hot waters for the many adverse effects, and even fatalities it has been associated with. Therefore, finding plant derivatives that kill the yellow fever virus is something on the best interest of those who live in endemic areas.
Below are the studies with plant derivatives that kill the yellow fever virus
In this study published at PUBMED, plant derivatives were tested against the yellow fever virus. The results were impressive with considerable antiviral activities observed, from the essential oils from the following plants grown in Colombia: Lippia alba, Lippia origanoides, Oreganum vulgare and Artemisia vulgaris.
Scientists observed that the presence of essential oil in the culture medium enhances the antiviral effect in the following concentrations: L. origanoides oil at 11.1 microg/mL produced a 100% reduction of virus yield, and the same result was observed with L. alba, O. vulgare and A. vulgaris oils at 100 microg/mL. But, No reduction of virus yield was observed when Vero cells were treated with essential oil before the adsorption of untreated-virus.
Gynostemma pentaphyllum also called jiaogulan, literally "stranded blue plant," which is widely used in Chinese medicine for a variety of ailments, was evaluated for its antiviral properties against the yellow fever virus.
Three methods were used to determine the antiviral properties of Gynostemma pentaphyllum.: 1) protection of chicken egg embryo against viral infectivity by the extracts 2) protection of mice against viral infectivity by the extracts and percentage inhibition of viral induced hemagglutination by the extracts 3)Phytochemical analysis of the extracts was also carried out.
It was found in the phytochemical analysis that the extracts was rich in saponins, alkaloids, glycosides, tannins, flavonoids, carbohydrates, reducing sugar, resins, acidic compounds, fats and oil and proteins. Also, it was observed that, the egg embryo and mice protection studies against yellow fever viral infectivity, showed that the extracts were able to give up to 100% protection to the embryonated eggs and mice and hence prevented egg/mice mortality. In addition to that, the extracts gave inhibitions of yellow fever virus in embryonated eggs up to 90%. Therefore it was concluded that the plant Gynostemma pentaphyllum possesses potent antiviral potential and could serve as a possible source of lead antiviral drugs against yellow fever since the disease has no known drug for treatment.
According to the World Health Organization, 47 countries in Africa (34) and Central and South America (13) are either endemic for, or have regions that are endemic for, yellow fever. A modelling study based on African data sources estimated the burden of yellow fever during 2013 was 84 000–170 000 severe cases and 29 000–60 000 deaths. So, the use of plant derivatives that kill the yellow fever virus should be more intently investigated, since slowly we are seeing a growth in the use of Antiviral Natural Products and Herbal Medicines to treat a variety of viral ailments.
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