Researchers Identify How Immune Cells Kill HIV
Researchers have identified cells that halt the progression of HIV to AIDS. They studied people who have HIV for many years, yet they have not developed symptoms of AIDS.
The small group of people, referred to as long-term non-progressors (LTNPs) have a special type of immunity that kills HIV when it infects the cells, known as CD8+ T cells. According to the new research, CD8+ T cells become highly effective HIV killers when they team up with other molecules in the body. When the molecules get together, they destroy HIV infected cells, halting the progression of HIV to AIDS.
Stephen Migueles, M.D., senior author Mark Connors, M.D., and colleagues at the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), studied CD8+ T with innovative technology that allowed them to watch how CD8+ T cells taken from long-term HIV survivors kill HIV infected cells.
The researchers discovered that cells taken from LTNP's destroyed HIV in less than an hour. Conversely, CD8+ T taken from AIDS progressors could not do the job, even when CD8+ T cells were present in large quantities.
The second molecule, manufactured by CD8+ T cells is the protein, perforin that then punches holes in the HIV infected cells. The next molecular member of the HIV killing team, granzyme B, then enters the cell infected with HIV, killing the virus.
The research clarifies how HIV survivors are able to avoid symptoms of AIDS. The accumulation of sufficient quantities of perforin and granzyme B in CD8+ T cells eliminates HIV in infected cells. The discovery explains why a minority of people infected with HIV do not require medications to stop the progression of HIV to AIDS.
The researchers hope for a new vaccine that can help CD8+ T accumulate large amounts of perforin and granzyme B. If such a vaccine proves successful, the researchers may have found a way to stop HIV from progressing to AIDS.