Ten Steps to Reforming Medicaid Insurance
Typically, Medicaid enrollees face restricted treatment options and limited access to health care. At the same time, they are sheltered from health care costs because they pay nothing out of their own pockets when they receive care.
This disconnection between patients and costs has led to a dramatic increase in public health care spending. All this could change, however, if the government were to implement the 10 Medicaid reforms discussed below.
Step 1: Free Patients.
One idea for improving Medicaid is to empower consumers in the medical marketplace by allowing them to control some of their own health care dollars.
A step in the right direction is the Deficit Reduction Act of 2005, which allows 10 state Medicaid programs to provide Medicaid recipients with Health Opportunity Accounts (HOAs) similar to Health Savings Accounts (HSAs) used in the private sector.
States that choose to participate receive federal matching funds of up to $1,000 per child and $2,500 per adult to be deposited into the HOAs. These funds can be used to purchase a variety of medical goods and services, and unused funds will be available for future use by the participants. Moreover, if patients become ineligible for Medicaid, they have three years to use up to 75 percent of their HOA balances to purchase private health insurance.
Step 2: Free Providers.
Doctors participating in Medicaid must practice medicine under an outmoded, wasteful payment system. Typically, they receive no financial reward for communicating with patients by telephone and email, teaching patients how to manage their own care, or helping them be better consumers in the market for drugs. Medicaid pays by task, and these are not reimbursable activities. Doctors who help patients in these ways are taking away from billable uses of their time.
Instead of letting Medicaid's payment rules get in the way, doctors and other health care providers should be rewarded for raising quality and lowering costs. Accordingly, providers should be able to propose and obtain a different reimbursement arrangement, provided the total cost to government does not increase, patient quality of care does not decrease, and there is a mechanism for accountability.
Step 3: Use Less-Expensive Therapies
Treatment in outpatient settings, such as doctors' offices, is generally less expensive than treatment in a hospital. However, Medicaid patients have limited access to physicians other than in public health clinics or hospital emergency rooms.