Medical Debt, Lack of Health Insurance Lead to Reduced Access to Healthcare
A new study has found that last year (2010), about 40% of Americans had trouble paying medical bills. This is up from 34% just a few years ago in 2005. Lack of insurance coverage is an obvious obstacle to increased out-of-pocket spending, but Patricia Herman, an economist at the University of Arizona warns that even having health insurance isn’t always protective from being financially devastated by illness or injury.
Medical Debt Increases With Inconsistent Health Insurance Coverage
The study, which appears online and in the August issue of the American Journal of Public Health, used data of 4,200 households in Arizona using the 2008 Arizona Health Survey which included items about whether families were having trouble paying medical bills or if they had delayed care because of the expense. Demographic data, such as income, ethnicity, the presence of chronic health conditions, and health insurance status were also gathered.
Although 83 percent of the survey participants had health insurance, nearly 27% reported having problems paying medical bills. For those who had been uninsured in the past year, but who now had coverage, 43% reported difficulty in paying medical bills. Families reporting medical debit or inconsistent health insurance coverage were five to six times as likely to delay filling prescriptions or getting needed medical care.
Medical debt in patients with health insurance is often due to high out-of-pocket expenses such as coinsurance, deductibles, and dollar limits. Lost wages due to an inability to work often accompanies medical debt, higher credit card debt and increased bankruptcy rates.
A separate study, for example, showed that patients diagnosed with cancer face significant financial stress due to income loss and out-of-pocket costs associated with their treatment. Dr. Scott Ramsey MD PhD, a health care economist and internist at Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, finds that bankruptcy rates are nearly twice as high among cancer patients one year after diagnosis than in the general population. Five years after diagnosis, bankruptcy rates increased fourfold.
Bankruptcy risk is highest for lung, thyroid, and leukemia/lymphoma cancer patients. In contrast, those over 65 (who are typically on Medicare) have a much lower risk of bankruptcy than younger patients.
The National Cancer Institute finds that the cost of cancer treatment is high and growing. Another study conducted by Duke University Medical Center and the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute finds that out-of-pocket cancer-related costs averaged $712 a month for surveyed patients and that many of the patients report the expenses as a “significant burden” despite all of the study participants (except one) having insurance.
“In this country, health insurance is most commonly tied to our jobs, so you can lose your insurance status,” said Dr. Herman. “It’s such a double whammy to be hit by that when you’re sick.” She predicts that the Affordable Care Act will provide relief for many people with inconsistent or incomplete insurance coverage, especially households with lower incomes. However, she says, “It will be really important for policy makers to ensure that people will be protected from high out-of-pocket costs as the law is implemented.”