Collateral Damage: Combat Vets, PTSD and How to Get Help
One soldier returns home from a tour in Afghanistan, where he saw a great deal of combat. He takes time to unwind, reacquaint himself with his family and then finds a good job and picks up his life pretty much as it was before going off to serve his country.
A second soldier comes home from combat and has difficulty fitting back in. He may be anxious, fearful, depressed and have trouble concentrating or sleeping. Television reports of combat or a war movie he comes across while channel surfing may set him off, triggering either erratic behavior or withdrawal from friends and loved ones.
Which one has Post-Traumatic Stress Syndrome?
The answer is, maybe both. Something is clearly bothering the second soldier, but the seemingly fine first soldier could have a delayed onset of PTSD.
So how can you tell if a friend loved one or friend is experiencing a post-traumatic reaction – and what can you do about it?
First of all, reactions to trauma are actually very “human” in the context of combat or a dramatic event, such as Superstorm Sandy, which hammered the East Coast in October 2012. Events like that may shake us to our psychological core.
It is especially hard for combat vets; the brave men and women were threatened with physical harm every day. Some 600,000 combat soldiers will return from Iraq and Afghanistan in the years to come. Some statistics suggest that our veterans are not receiving the support and services they need to make this transition. A survey of more than 700 returning vets indicates that 56 percent said they wanted or needed mental health treatment, and 50 percent of those reported that the treatment they received was “minimally adequate.” The unemployment rate is higher for vets than non-vets, and the Veterans’ Administration recently reported that a vet dies by suicide every 80 minutes.
While not everyone experiences or copes with stress and trauma in the same way, common reactions include anxiety, fearfulness, depression, inability to concentrate, involuntary replaying images of part of traumatic events, difficulty sleeping or a need to constantly scan one's environment for threats or danger. Reactions may be ongoing or triggered by some reminder of the event, such as time-of-year anniversary, or sensory reminders such as smells, sounds, or images of a traumatic event.
There is a difference between traumatic events and post-traumatic reactions and their timelines are different. Traumatic events represent a direct or perceived threat to an individual's well-being. The other important defining factor of traumatic events is that they are out of the realm of human expectation like Hurricane Sandy; no one sees them coming – the unimaginable has happened. And while soldiers are trained for combat, nothing can completely prepare them for the reality of war. Many traumatic events have a beginning, middle, and an end. In the moment and directly after the event, our reaction is protective – it helps us to cope and survive the event. For some, the reaction to a traumatic event is immediate; for others, the reaction to a traumatic event occurs with some distance from the event.
There are a number of reasons why someone may have experienced a reaction right away vs. someone who is just becoming aware of their reactions or someone who is unsure if they are experiencing a reaction to a traumatic event.